pregnancy and drinking or coffee essay

at both time points among children of less educated women, women with lower IQ scores, and nonwhite women. Because smokers metabolize caffeine more rapidly than do nonsmokers ( 38 a given serum paraxanthine value may correspond to higher caffeine intake in the CPP cohort than in a more modern cohort. Child IQ was measured by means of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale ( 21 ) at age 4 years and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children when in rome do as romans do essay ( 22 ) at age 7 years. 2008 ;.

pregnancy and drinking or coffee essay



pregnancy and drinking or coffee essay

Partic ipants were asked about their average coffee, tea and alcohol consumption during pregnancy.
All relevant summary data are provided in the paper.

We studied the association between maternal serum concentration of paraxanthine, the primary metabolite of caffeine in humans, at 2 points in pregnancy and the child's cognitive and behavioral outcomes at 4 and 7 years of age in the Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP) cohort. 1978 ;. 16 Klebanoff MA, Levine RJ, Clemens JD. 2012 ; 130 2 : e305 e313. 38 Parsons WD, Neims. Just like our bodies, our decisions also become fair game. Third, the CPP was not a statistically representative sample of pregnant women; however, the value of statistical representativeness in epidemiologic investigation is dubious ( 36 ). E Cutpoints for length of gestation at 20-week blood draw. However, we did not observe significant interactions between smoking and paraxanthine level for any outcome.

pregnancy and drinking or coffee essay