defend rights, and do so under a utilitarian framework. Until this occurs, however, the problem is not unique to utilitarianism, but is rather inherent to any system that attempts to find foundations for morality. He says that it is a mistake to only cultivate moral feelings, to the exclusion of the sympathies or artistic understandings, a mistake moralists of all persuasions often make. Mill observes that the utilitarian's standard for judging an act is the happiness of all people, not of the agent alone. These are "artificial" moral feelings, because they are imposed rather than naturally developed. Mill writes that utilitarianism has or can impose all the sanctions that other moral systems can. Mill begins by trying to pin down the meaning of justice, by coming up with a list of those things that are commonly classified as just or unjust. A fourth form of injustice is to violate an agreement with someone or disappoint expectations that one knowingly nurtured. Therefore, law cannot be the ultimate standard of justice. Mill says that some help may come from looking at the history of the word. Imagine that a philosopher poses a moral theory that declares that actions are morally good insofar as they promote human suffering.
SparkNotes: Utilitarianism: Chapter 1: General Remarks
He supports this claim by showing that all the other objects of people s desire. He wrote one of his most famous essays, Utilitarianism, in 1861. Utilitarianism is a moral and legal theory, with origins in classical philosophy, that was famously. A summary of Chapter 1: General Remarks in John Stuart Mill s Utilitarianism. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans.
Mill also recognizes, however, that the idea of city life simple essay justice is often applied to areas about which we would not want legislation: for example, we always think it right that unjust acts be punished, even if we recognize that it would be inexpedient for courts. The limitation on the scope of the state's right to punish in particular cases has to do with practical concerns about extending the state's power, not with a sense that the person should not be punished. Mill argues that utilitarianism thus has its roots in the social nature of human beings-in their desire to be in unity with other humans, and their fear of other people's disapproval. Summary, the first Chapter of Mill's treatise covers a general outline of his argument. Furthermore, this feeling does not require the education system just described in order to be able to influence people; for even in this comparatively early state of advancement, people cannot escape feeling a degree of fellow-feeling with other humans. He specifies, however, that while utilitarians value sacrificing one's good for the good of others, they do not think that the sacrifice is in itself a good. Nevertheless, people do see justice as a unified concept, and do feel a sentiment of justice regardless of whether they understand its foundation. Thus, the most primitive element of justice is the idea of conformity to law. This critique of Kant serves as Mill's segue into utilitarianism. Moral feelings may not be a part of human nature, but they are a natural outgrowth.
SparkNotes: Utilitarianism: Chapter 5: Of the Connection between
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